Transvenous Lead Extraction in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease
Insights From a 20-Year Single-Center Experience
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Background: Safety and feasibility data on transvenous lead extraction (TLE) in the challenging population of adults with congenital heart disease (A-CHD) are limited. Herein, we report the results of TLE in A-CHD during a 20-year period.
Methods and Results: All consecutive TLE procedures in A-CHD were included in a monocentric prospective registry from 1996. A total of 121 leads were extracted in 49 A-CHD (median age, 38 years; 51% men) during 71 TLE procedures. Twenty-four (49%) patients had transposition of the great arteries. Main indications for extraction were infection in 34 (48%) and lead failure in 22 (31%). A laser sheath was required for 56 (46%) leads and a femoral approach for 10 (8%). Complete TLE was achieved for 111 leads (92%). In multivariable analysis, lead duration (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.04; P<0.01) and number of previous cardiac surgeries (odds ratio, 2.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–4.67; P<0.01) were predictive of TLE failure. No perioperative death or pericardial effusion was observed. Subpulmonary atrioventricular valve regurgitation increased in 8 patients (5 with transposition of the great arteries) and was independently associated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead (odds ratio, 9.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.31–71.64; P=0.03) and valvular vegetation (odds ratio, 7.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–40.51; P=0.02). After a median of 54 (19–134) months of follow-up after the first TLE, 3 deaths occurred independently from lead management.
Conclusions: Despite complex anatomic issues, TLE can be achieved successfully in most A-CHD using advanced extraction techniques. Subpulmonary atrioventricular valve regurgitation is a prevalent complication, particularly in patients with transposition of the great arteries.
- Received May 1, 2017.
- Accepted December 18, 2017.
- © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.