Long-Duration Ventricular Fibrillation Exhibits 2 Distinct Organized StatesClinical Perspective
Background—Previous studies showed that endocardial activation during long-duration ventricular fibrillation (VF) exhibits organized activity. We identified and quantified the different types of organized activity.
Methods and Results—Two 64-electrode basket catheters were inserted, respectively, into the left ventricle and right ventricle of dogs to record endocardial activation from the endocardium during 7 minutes of VF (controls, n=6). The study was repeated with the KATP channel opener pinacidil (n=6) and the calcium channel blocker flunarizine (n=6). After 2 minutes of VF without drugs, 2 highly organized left ventricular endocardial activation patterns were observed: (1) ventricular electric synchrony pattern, in which endocardial activation arose focally and either had a propagation sequence similar to sinus rhythm or arose near papillary muscles, and (2) stable pattern, in which activation was regular and repeatable, sometimes forming a stable re-entrant circuit around the left ventricular apex. Between 3 and 7 minutes of VF, the percent of time ventricular electric synchrony was present was control=25%, flunarizine=24% (P=0.44), and pinacidil=0.1% (P<0.001) and the percent of time stable pattern was present was control=71%, flunarizine=48% (P<0.001), and pinacidil=56% (P<0.001). The remainder of the time, nonstable re-entrant activation with little repeatability was present.
Conclusions—After 3 minutes, VF exhibits 2 highly organized endocardial activation patterns 96% of the time, one potentially arising focally in the Purkinje system that was prevented with a KATP channel opener but not a calcium channel blocker and the other potentially arising from a stable re-entrant circuit near the apical left ventricular endocardium.
- Received February 14, 2013.
- Accepted October 31, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.