Ventricular Arrhythmias Arising From the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Below the Aortic Sinus CuspsCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE
Mapping and Catheter Ablation via Transseptal Approach and Electrocardiographic Characteristics
Background—Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the anterosuperior left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) represent a challenging location for catheter ablation. This study investigates mapping and ablation of VA from anterosuperior LVOT via a transseptal approach.
Methods and Results—This study included 27 patients with symptomatic VA, of which 13 patients had previous failed ablations. LVOT endocardial 3-dimensional mapping via retrograde transaortic and antegrade transseptal approaches was performed. Previous ECG markers for procedure failure were analyzed. In all patients, earliest activation with low-amplitude potentials was identified at the anterosuperior LVOT 5.1±2.8 mm below the aortic cusp and preceded the QRS onset by 39.5±7.7 ms only via an antegrade transseptal approach using a reversed S curve. In all patients, pace mapping failed to demonstrate perfect QRS morphology match. The anatomic location was below the left coronary cusp in 16, below the left coronary cusp/right coronary cusp junction in 8, and below the right coronary cusp in 3 patients. Radiofrequency energy resulted in rapid disappearance of VAs in all patients. ECG analysis showed aVL/aVR Q-wave amplitude ratio >1.4 in 7, lead III/II R-wave amplitude ratio >1.1 in 10, and peak deflection index >0.6 in 11 patients. There were no complications or clinical VA recurrence during a mean follow-up of 8.4±2.5 months.
Conclusions—The anterosuperior LVOT can be reached via a transseptal approach with a reversed S curve of the ablation catheter. The rapid effect from radiofrequency energy indicates that the VA is most likely located under the endocardium. Also, previous ECG markers for procedure failure need further investigation.
- Received January 30, 2014.
- Accepted March 29, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.