Myocardial Lesion Size After Epicardial Electroporation Catheter Ablation After Subxiphoid PunctureCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE
Background—Irreversible electroporation is a promising nonthermal ablation modality able to create deep myocardial lesions. We investigated lesion size after epicardial electroporation catheter ablation with various energy levels after subxiphoid pericardial puncture.
Methods and Results—In six 6-month-old pigs (60–75 kg), a custom deflectable octopolar 12-mm circular catheter with 2-mm ring electrodes was introduced via a deflectable sheath after pericardial access by subxiphoid puncture. Nonarcing, nonbarotraumatic, cathodal 50, 100, and 200 J electroporation applications were delivered randomly on the basal, mid and lateral left ventricle. After 3-month survival, myocardial lesion size and degree of intimal hyperplasia of the coronary arteries were analyzed histologically. Five animals survived the follow-up without complications and 1 animal died of shock after the subxiphoid puncture. At autopsy, whitish circular scars with indentation of the epicardium could be identified. Average lesion depths of the 50-, 100-, and 200-J lesions were 5.0±2.1, 7.0±2.0, and 11.9±1.5 mm, respectively. Average lesion widths of the 50-, 100-, and 200-J lesions were 16.6±1.1, 16.2±4.3, and 19.8±1.8 mm, respectively. In the 100- and 200-J cross sections, transmural left ventricular lesions and significant tissue shrinkage were observed. No intimal hyperplasia of the coronary arteries was observed.
Conclusions—Epicardial electroporation ablation after subxiphoid pericardial puncture can create deep, wide, and transmural ventricular myocardial lesions. There is a significant relationship between the amounts of electroporation energy delivered epicardially and lesion size in the absence of major adverse events.
- Received March 10, 2014.
- Accepted June 11, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.