MK-0448, a Specific Kv1.5 Inhibitor: Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Electrophysiology in Experimental Animal Models and in Humans
Background—We evaluated the viability of IKur as a target for maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with a history of atrial fibrillation through the testing of MK-0448, a novel IKur inhibitor.
Methods and Results—In vitro MK-0448 studies demonstrated strong inhibition of IKur with minimal off-target activity. In vivo MK-0448 studies in normal anesthetized dogs demonstrated significant prolongation of the atrial refractory period compared with vehicle controls without affecting the ventricular refractory period. In studies of a conscious dog heart failure model, sustained AF was terminated with bolus intravenous MK-0448 doses of 0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg. These data led to a two-part "first-in-human" study: Part I evaluated safety and pharmacokinetics, and Part II was an invasive electrophysiologic (EP) study in healthy subjects. MK-0448 was well-tolerated with mild adverse experiences, most commonly irritation at the injection site. During the EP study, ascending doses of MK-0448 were administered, but no increases in atrial or ventricular refractoriness were detected despite achieving plasma concentrations in excess of 2 μM. Follow-up studies in normal anesthetized dogs designed to assess the influence of autonomic tone demonstrated that prolongation of atrial refractoriness with MK-0448 was markedly attenuated in the presence of vagal nerve simulation, suggesting that the effects of IKur blockade on atrial repolarization may be negated by enhanced parasympathetic neural tone.
Conclusions—The contribution of IKur to human atrial electrophysiology is less prominent than in preclinical models and therefore is likely to be of limited therapeutic value for the prevention of atrial fibrillation.
- Received December 21, 2011.
- Accepted September 3, 2012.
- Copyright © 2012, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited